Ionic bonding

  • Ionic substances consists of positive ions and negative ions arranged in a regular lattice
  • Ionic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged atoms
  • Attraction is non-directional
  • Two atoms with a high difference in electronegativities tend to form ions
  • Ions can be formed by the transfer of electrons from atoms of a metal element to atoms of a non-metal element
  • Electron dot diagrams can be used to show the arrangement of valence electrons in atoms, ions and ionic compounds.
    • Square brackets are usually drawn around the electron dot diagram of an ion

Property

Explanation
High melting point and boiling point Strong attractive forces between ions
Hardness Strong attractive forces between ions
Brittleness When a layer of ions move, repulsion between similar ions occurs and causes the crystal to shatter
Non-conductor of electricity in solid state Cations and anions are held in place by strong ionic bonds in a lattice
Conductor in molten state and aqueous The ions are no longer arranged in a lattice, making them free to move and carry a charge
White in colour (mostly)

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