Category: School Notes

Factors affecting reaction rate 0

Factors affecting reaction rate

Nature of reactants Reactions involving strong bonds are slower than those involving weak bonds. For instance, molecules often react slower at room temperature than ions in solution, so the combustion of methane at STP...

Collision theory 0

Collision theory

The rate of a reaction is determined by finding the rate of change of reactant/product with respect to time. For a successful reaction to occur, The reactant particles must collide The particles must collide...

Observations 0

Observations

Changes described in observations include: The colour and odour of any gas produced The change in colour of a solution The dissolving or precipitation of a solid The colour of solids precipitated The appearance...

Ion-dipole forces 0

Ion-dipole forces

When an ionic substance dissolves in water, bonds will be broken as well as formed. The hydrogen bonds between water molecules and the ionic bonds within the lattice will be broken. To provide energy...

Solubility 0

Solubility

Solutions form through a process which involves a rearrangement of bonds. The bonds between particles of a solute and the bonds between particles of a solvent are broken. New bonds between the solute and...

Types of van der Waal (intermolecular) Forces 0

Types of van der Waal (intermolecular) Forces

Dipole-dipole Forces Dipole-dipole forces are weak, van der Waals forces that occur between polar molecules. The region of a molecule that is slightly negatively charged is attracted to the region of a second molecule...

Metallic bonding 0

Metallic bonding

Metals are held together in a lattice of positive ions and a sea of delocalised electrons. The strength of the bond depends on the size of the positive ion and the way in which...

Polarity 0

Polarity

Non-polar Bonds When a covalent bond forms between two atoms of the same element, e.g. O2, the bonding electrons are shared equally between the two atoms. This means each electron spends equal time moving...

Shapes of molecules 0

Shapes of molecules

According to the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR), electron pairs in the outer shell of an atom repel each other and are arranged as far apart as possible. This allows for the...

Covalent bonding 0

Covalent bonding

Covalent Molecular Within molecules, atoms are held together by the electrostatic attraction between shared electrons and nuclei of atoms, forming covalent bonds When atoms combine to form molecules, they often share electrons so that...

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